Original Research

Breastfeeding and swallowing in a neonate with mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

Esedra Krüger, Alta Kritzinger, Lidia Pottas
South African Journal of Communication Disorders | Vol 64, No 1 | a209 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajcd.v64i1.209 | © 2017 Esedra Krüger, Alta Kritzinger, Lidia Pottas | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 October 2016 | Published: 22 May 2017

About the author(s)

Esedra Krüger, Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Alta Kritzinger, Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Lidia Pottas, Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: Specific breastfeeding and swallowing characteristics in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) have not yet been well described in the literature. Considering the relatively high incidence of HIE in resource-poor settings, speech-language therapists should be cognisant of the feeding difficulties in this population during breastfeeding.

Objective: To systematically describe the breastfeeding and swallowing of a single case of a neonate diagnosed with mild HIE from admission to discharge.

Method: A case study of a 2-day old neonate with mild HIE in a neonatal intensive care unit at an urban teaching hospital, is presented. Data were prospectively collected during four sessions in a 12-day period until the participant’s discharge. Feeding and swallowing were assessed clinically, as well as instrumentally using a video-fluoroscopic swallow study.

Results: After parenteral feeding, nasogastric tube feeding commenced. Breastfeeding was introduced on Day 6, as it was considered a safe option, and revealed problematic rooting, shallow latching, short sucking bursts, infrequent swallowing, and a drowsy state of arousal, with coughing and choking. No penetration or aspiration was identified instrumentally. After 13 days, the neonate was breastfeeding safely.

Conclusion: Although the pharyngeal stage of swallowing was intact, symptoms of oral stage dysphagia were revealed using a combination of clinical and instrumental measures. Breastfeeding difficulties were identified, exacerbated by poor state regulation, which lead to prolonged hospitalisation. The case study highlights the unexpected long duration of feeding difficulties in an infant with mild HIE and indicates further research.


Keywords

Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy; breastfeeding; swallowing; video-fluoroscopic swallow study; neonate; HIV

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