Original Research

Cultural adaptation and Sepedi translation of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale

Tammy L. Prinsloo, Karin Joubert
South African Journal of Communication Disorders | Vol 71, No 1 | a1004 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajcd.v71i1.1004 | © 2024 Tammy L. Prinsloo, Karin Joubert | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 19 July 2023 | Published: 21 May 2024

About the author(s)

Tammy L. Prinsloo, Department of Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Karin Joubert, Department of Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa


Background: The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale is a widely used measure to identify older adults with balance difficulties. However, its applicability in the diverse South African context is hindered by cross-cultural and linguistic differences. Limited research exists on the use of the ABC scale in native South African languages.

Objectives: This study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the ABC scale into Sepedi, evaluate its reliability and determine self-perceived balance confidence among elderly individuals in a rural community.

Method: The ABC scale was translated and culturally adapted into Sepedi. Two trained raters administered the Sepedi version of the ABC (ABC-S) scale to 32 individuals aged between 60 and 88 years. Test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were determined, with one rater re-administering the scale 2 weeks later.

Results: Ten items from the original ABC scale were modified because of cultural, semantic or contextual inappropriateness. The ABC-S scale demonstrated very good intra- and inter-rater reproducibility, with an average intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.85 and 0.81, respectively. The self-perceived balance confidence among elderly Sepedi individuals, as evaluated by the ABC-S scale, was high, with an average score of 81.3 and a range of 58.1 to 95.9.

Conclusion: The ABC-S scale is a reliable measurement tool to investigate balance confidence in Sepedi-speaking older adults.

Contribution: The ABC-S scale is a valuable screening tool for the identification of balance difficulties in Sepedi-speaking older adults as well as research settings.


falls; aged; ABC scale; activities and participation; cultural adaptation; linguistic appropriateness

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being


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